Development Journey Of Pakistan from 1947 TO 2022; Lessons Learnt VIZ-A VIZ Other Countries

If we want to make this great state of Pakistan happy and prosperous, we should wholly and solely concentrate on the well-being of the people, and especially of the masses and poor

Development Journey Of Pakistan from 1947 TO 2022; Lessons Learnt VIZ-A VIZ Other Countries

The words of our Great Leader "The Quaid e Azam"

"If we want to make this great state of Pakistan happy and prosperous, we should wholly and solely concentrate on the well-being of the people, and especially of the masses and poor."

Today marks the 75th Independence day, the platinum jubilee of Pakistan. The nation has completed its 75 years of independence and celebrating its 75th independence day with spirit and enthusiasm as a Sovereign state.

What is a Sovereign state?

On 14th of august our country became independent. Pakistan became sovereign. The word "Sovereign" means the state is not under the control of a foreign power. Sovereignty means the ultimate authority to govern yourself.

Why freedom is important?

The most important goal of the freedom struggle was to acquire sovereignty. In a democracy, sovereignty rests with the people. The people elect their representatives and grant permission to exercise sovereign authority on their behalf.


75 years of the development journey of Pakistan recalls the events that took place after independence. I have highlighted major development events since independence in a clear and meaningful manner.

The lack of resources to meet the nation's needs after independence is not behind-the-scenes. The nation didn't get its fair share from India soon after its birth. Pakistan faced major problems with the economy, settlement of refugees, education and food. A country with thirty million people in 1947, was not able to feed its people itself and had to complete its requirements by importing from abroad.

With the hard work and determination of its people country's economy was revitalized gradually. Production of cotton was 3.4 million tonnes in 1947, and it increased to 26.4 million tonnes in 2022. Likewise, the production of cotton, sugarcane, and rice also increases in 2022 compared to 1947.

The irrigation system is also improved with the construction of large and small dams like Tarbela and Mangla and other dams etc. Pakistan's agriculture sector has made tremendous progress with the increased availability of water. Pakistan is considered one of the leading exporters of textile, processed food, and pharmaceutical goods. Pakistan's economic growth rebounded to 3.9% in the fiscal year 2021 and is expected to reach 4.0% in the fiscal year 2022.

Pakistan has signed several bilateral and multilateral global trading agreements like WTO, SCO, the South Asian Association for Regional cooperation, and China Pakistan Economic Corridor. All this was only possible due to the true dedication, hard work, and resilience of the people of Pakistan to make Pakistan strong.

The newly formed state "PAKISTAN"

The[YM1] day when Iqbal's dream became a reality in the form of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The only motto was Kalima e Tayyaba.

Though it was a newly constructed state with minimal resources. Observers were thinking this state will last soon. Hardly Pakistan can survive for six months. Pakistan was lacking resources. As the distribution of resources was unequal not in the favour of Pakistan, most of the assets were divided in the approbation of India. Some initial problems that Pakistan faced after independence were:

  • Administrative problems
  • Distribution of assets
  • Water problems
  • Constitutional issues
  • Migrants issues
  • Geographical and defence problems
  • Economic issues

To overcome the deficiency and make Pakistan physically and financially stable, some major and immediate developments were taken place:

Industrialization is a vehicle for an economic growth

At the time of independence, Pakistan got 34 industrial units out of 921 large industrial units producing cotton, textile, jute, sugar, cement, chemical and iron goods, and cigarettes. Former East Pakistan had no single Jute factory even though it was the main producer of Jute, all were located in Calcutta which was the area of India. West Pakistan was producing cotton in large quantities but had no factory to produce and manufacture it locally.

Soon, the Pakistani government worked on that major crisis and started industrialization by 1950 at the public and private levels. The private sector was hesitant to invest in high industries due to a lack of technical knowledge and capital. So the government of Pakistan initiated Pakistan Industrial Development Corporation (PIDC) and invested in those industries which require high investment, heavy technical expertise and long term to yield a return. Today Pakistan's GDP has increased from 7% to 64%. The cotton textile industry, agriculture, automotive, cement, steel, tobacco, chemicals, machinery and food processing are the major industries of Pakistan.


If we look at china, there are almost 80,000 dams. The main purpose of building dams is to control flood and irrigation. In Pakistan, the Tarbela dam was constructed between 1968 to 1974 with a cost of around $3.314 billion. It is one of the largest man-made reservoirs. It is also listed among the largest earth-filled dams in the World with a height of around 470 feet (143 metres). The main purpose of building Marbella was to provide cheap hydel power generation, flood control, irrigation and fishing facilities. Japan has 500,000 dams, Korea has 18,000 dams, India has more than 4000 dams, and There are only 150 dams in Pakistan. This number of DAMS is not enough to fulfil the needs, as we can see today flood destructions in Sindh and Balochistan. So Pakistan is trying to build new dams and hopefully, the number of dams will increase by 2030.


Pakistan conducted a series of nuclear tests from 28th to 30th May 1998 at change, Baluchistan and became the 7th nuclear power in the world in 1998.

When Pakistan knew that India had started its nuclear tests, a meeting of high officers was held and some suggested we should answer India's nuclear tests while some suggested we should not do anything. Pakistan had international pressure against nuclear testing. They had only one thing to say India had done this but you should refrain from it. Pakistan should act like a good child. Pakistan conducted five tests as an answer to India's three nuclear tests. 23 years ago on this day, Pakistan restored the balance of power in the region by successfully establishing credible minimum nuclear deterrence. Armed Forces and the nation pay tribute to all those involved in making this dream come true.


In January 2002, the first license for Islamic banking in Pakistan was issued. Fully pledged commercial banking operations commenced in march 2002 as the first Islamic bank in Pakistan. It was considered a pioneering work in the Muslim world to Islamize the economy at the national level. The decision to Islamize the baking system has proved to be a success as reflected by its considerable growth; by March 31, 2018, the Islamic banking industry's share in the overall banking industry's assets and deposits stood at 13.5 per cent and 14.6 per cent, respectively. The network of the Islamic banking industry consisted of 21 Islamic banking institutions (5 fullfledged Islamic banks and 16 conventional banks having standalone Islamic banking branches) with a network of 2,589 branches spread across the country.


The M-2 MOTORWAY ALSO KNOWN AS SIX-LANE LAHORE TO ISLAMABAD MOTORWAY WAS ALSO COMPLETED IN 1990. It was the first highway of its kind in Pakistan. The present NHA network comprising of 48 highways, motorways and strategic roads. Motorways are part of Pakistan's National Trade Corridor and China-Pakistan Belt Road Initiative. The total road network in Pakistan is 500,750 km. Socio-economic activities are connected all over the country through these roads.


This was an encouraging step in the socioeconomic development of Pakistan. Women were given the chance of representation in the national assembly and senate and in law-making to empower them. Though, the representation was only 17 per cent which was much less than the 33 per cent aimed for. It was a great decision in 2002 to empower women socially, politically and economically.


CPEC was the foundation of regional connectivity between two nations China and Pakistan. Gwadar Projects under CPEC. 46 enterprises have been registered for investment in Free Zone. CPEC is the collection of infrastructure projects that are under construction beginning in 2013. One of the main benefits of CPEC is the development of skilled manpower. CPEC is considered China's special relationship with Pakistan. The border cooperation includes trade, transport, telecommunication, energy, education, tourism and financial co-operations as well.


Around 80% population was illiterate at the time of independence in Pakistan. Education was a challenge because the country was in an underdeveloped state. In 1951, the literacy rate was 19.3% and increased in 2001 to 65.4%. Education based on Islamic fundamentalism has experienced exponential growth since the 1970s. The primary education enrollment ratio was 43% in 1951 and it became 100% in 2001. Primary education has been free and compulsory. The number of educational institutes in 1947-48 was 8.4 thousand has increased to 187.9 thousand in 2022. There were only 2 universities in 1947 now has increased to 233 in 2022. At the time of independence, only 46 vocational and training institutions were working, now the number has increased to 3,914 in 2022.

Facts and present conditions 

Education provides the framework for reducing poverty and enhancing social development. An education system of poor quality may be one of the reasons why poor countries do not grow. Pakistan needs to educate their masses up to a level where they can understand their responsibilities, as well as that of governing bodies. They must be able to earn their living. Without further delay, a sincere and dedicated effort to implement a designed course curriculum of compulsory education for all must be accomplished.


Covid-19 is considered a disastrous period, but we had gained a lot of positive experiences in business, communication and education. Due to the lockdown, work-from-home models increased. There was a 15% increase in internet usage was recorded right after the lockdown during 2019-2020. The government of Pakistan is also taking proactive steps to introduce a paperless working environment in government offices and educational institutions and E-filling and E-government are the major initiatives in this regard. Gradually, the development of digitalization is becoming essential for economic growth and it is expected to give Pakistan a boost.


During the last 50 years, the country had progressed very well in the sector and the establishment of health facilities and training institutions. At the time of independence, there were only 292 hospitals in the country providing treatment for serious illnesses and emergencies.

In 1949, the institute of hygiene and preventive medicine, Lahore.

In 1962, the college of physicians and surgeons Karachi, a leading research and training institute.

In 1966, Federal Government Services Hospital offers health care and training facilities.In 

1970, a Nationwide network of health infrastructure was initiated. To establish at least 1 basic health facility in each union council.

In 1985, the Pakistan institute of medical sciences (PIMS) initiated one children's hospital and a post-graduate training institute.

In 1966, the number of hospitals increased to 866, whereas dispensaries increased to 4545.

In 1972, Pakistan's largest kidney centre named SIUT Karachi started serving humanity free of cost.

In 2018, Pakistan Kidney and Liver Institute (PKLI) was inaugurated.

In 2022, a free bone-marrow transplant facility opens at GAMBIT.

Pakistan is a country which is trying hard to achieve the Millennium developments goals (MDGs) which are set for all developing countries. In my view, the biggest strength of the system is that it has committed to participate in MIDGs after re-structuring the national health policy in 2001that included primary health care services in the health policy.


For developing countries, access to technology can have many benefits, and one of the great benefits is a boost to a nation's economy.

The IT sector is one of the fastest growing sectors of Pakistan contributing about 1% of GDP at about 3.5 billion US dollars. Pakistan has more than 2000 IT companies and call centres by the end of 2018 and the number is growing every year. More than 10,000 tech companies are registered in 2022. Every year more than 15,000 programmers, software coders and app designers enter the market. There are 30 companies in Pakistan that provide Artificial intelligence services. NUST university of sciences and technology is now ranked as Pakistan's finest university for providing high-quality AI education on a competitive basis.


Pakistan grows high-quality rice to meet both domestic demand and export. In 2020, the rice export quantity for Pakistan was 4,200 thousand tonnes, compared to 198 thousand tonnes in 1971. 

Pakistan's IT exports increased by 44% to USD 379 million during the first quarter of the fiscal year 2020-21, and there is a lot of potentials to grow more. 


According to the provisional figures compiled by the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, exports from Pakistan during April 2022 amounted to Rs.534,514 million (provisional) as against Rs.498,845 million in March 2022 and Rs.339,498 million during April 2021 showing an increase of 7.15% over March 2022 and of 57.44% over April 2021.


Imports into Pakistan during April 2022 amounted to Rs. 1,232,104 million (provisional) as against Rs. 1,150,786 million in March 2022 and Rs. 802,443 million during April 2021 showing an increase of 7.07% over March 2021 and 53.54% over April 2021.

Lessons Learnt viz-a-viz Other Countries

Over the end of the past 100 years, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong have made rapid developments.

State's capability 

These nations developed strong state capacity to develop and implement policies. Japan inherited a legacy of stronger bureaucracy from ancient times but Singapore, South Korea, and China built the public sector from almost scratch. Without state capability, neither planned nor organic development can occur. State capability may comprise the quality of public sector institutions, human resources and openness to research and new ideas. East Asian nations particularly professionalised the public sector and created the in-house capability to think, plan and implement.

The market of businesses and professionals

The second most important achievement was to create a thick market of businesses and professionals. This strategy was achieved through massive public investments and the facilitation of businesses and talent in several ways.

Urbanisation and quality of cities

Thirdly, the most neglected factor in economic analysis is urbanisation and the quality of cities in almost all these nations. It is often remarked that no nation has ever developed in the known history of mankind without urbanisation.

The capability of China, Korea, and Japan to develop new cities and regenerate existing ones is amazing. Their business friendliness and talent magnetism are the other core features. Cities present a host of opportunities and challenges—and externalities

Provision of public goods

Fourthly, these nations invested heavily in the provision of public goods and social insurance in the areas of education, health, access to water/sanitation, public (transit) transport, public safety, and public housing.

Almost in all these countries, the public sector started investing in these sectors and later opened it up for private investment or partnerships.

Moreover, it appears important to benchmark Pakistan's situation with the successful policy initiatives of the East Asian miracle. An analysis will reveal that Pakistan is presently missing almost all ingredients of the East Asian miracle.


  • Pakistan has a high potential to be among the world's largest economies in the 21st century.
  • Pakistan has a semi-industrialized economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector.
  • Many economists suggested that Pakistan until 2030 become an Asian tiger and CPEC will play an important role in it.
  • Pakistan's northern areas attraction is another factor, for tourism economy building.
  • Pakistan is the seventh in the world, second in South Asia and the only country in the Islamic world that has Nuclear Power.
  • Pakistan's armed forces stand among the sixth-largest standing armed forces in the world.
  • Pakistan is the founding member of the OIC, the SAARC, and the Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition as well as a member of many International organizations including the UN, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the Common Wealth of Nations, the ARF, the Economic Cooperation Organization and many more.